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Exercise Dynamic Mix 98

01-21 October 1998

Iskenderun, Turkey

Exercise DYNAMIC MIX 98 (DM-98), this year's largest exercise in NATO's Southern Region, was conducted in Italy, Turkey and Greece October 1 through 21 with the participation of 11 NATO nations.

Exercise DYNAMIC MIX 98 was scheduled by Commander-in-Chief, Allied Forces Southern Europe (CINCSOUTH) whose headquarters is in Naples, Italy.

The land portion of the exercise in Turkey was conducted by Gen. H. Edip Baser, Commander, Allied Land Forces Southeastern Europe (COMLANDSOUTHEAST) whose headquarters is in Izmir, Turkey.

DM-98 in Turkey aimed to test NATO's capability of reinforcing its Southeastern Region with in-place and Immediate Reaction Forces. Elements of the US Second Marine Expeditionary Force deployed to Iskenderun as the designated Immediate Reaction Force. This was the first deployment of the II MEF to the area.

The planning cycle for the exercise had started 18 months before its execution. The exercise scenario portrayed increasing hostilities by a fictitious country called YELLOWLANDIA. NATO reacted by deploying its Immediate Reaction Force, represented by II MEF (forward) and supported by maritime forces, to the southeastern area.

More than 2,500 personnel participated in Exercise DYNAMIC MIX 98. The II MEF deployed to Iskenderun by air and sea. From the port of Iskenderun 61 MEF vehicles and about 400 MEF personnel moved forward to Kayseri to participate in the live firing exercise conducted at the Kayseri range Oct. 14-15. Throughout the exercise joint and combined operations were conducted in command post (CPX) and live exercise (LIVEX) modes.


-Exercise DYNAMIC MIX 98 in NATO's Southeastern Flank-

Officer Scheduling the Exercise: Admiral. Joseph T. Lopez, Commander-in-Chief, Allied Forces Southern Europe (CINCSOUTH)

Officer Conducting the Exercise: General. H. Edip Baser, Commander, Allied Land Forces Southeastern Europe (COMLANDSOUTHEAST)

Exercise Co-Directors (Land): General. H. Edip Baser, Commander, Allied Land Forces Southeastern Europe and General. T. Aytac Yalman, Commander, Turkish Second Army

Deputy Exercise Director (Land): Major General Reginal Graham Clemmons, Deputy Commander, Allied Land Forces Southeastern Europe

Immediate Reaction Force Commander: Major General Emil R. Bedard, Commander, II MEF


- MPS?Ships Offload to Support Dynamic Mix 98 -

Maritime Prepositioning Ships (MPS) SS Obregon and MV?Bobo offloaded heavy combat equipment for II?MEF?at the port of Iskenderun, Turkey as part of Exercise Dynamic Mix 98.

Along with Kocak which conducted maritime convoy operations during the exercise, these ships which are part of the Maritime Prepositioning Ships Squadron One, carry equipment and supplies to sustain a Marine Corps Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) of up to 17000 marines for up to 30 days of combat - from tanks and ammunition to food and fuel. The squadron is strategically positioned in the Mediterranean and remains underway for rapid response in contingency operations.

The off-load of the ships took place Oct. 5-9. SS?Obregon offloaded 300 vehicles and 40 containers "in-stream," whereby cargo was loaded onto "lighterage" while the ships were anchored. Lighterage is type of landing craft designed to transport vehicles and cargo from sea to shore.

The MV?Bobo offloaded equipment pier-side by use of its roll-on-roll-off capability, whereby 41 wheeled and tracked vehicles were driven off the ship by a retractable ramp, and containers and supplies were lifted off by cranes.

Depending on operational requirements, MPS ships can also off-load bulk fuel and water by a floating hose system, whereby fuel and water is pumped to shore into large bladders by a series of floating hoses.

A Navy Support Element (NSE), an embarked task force of support personnel and equipment are responsible to off-load the ships. A beach support unit remains ashore and is responsible for beach operations. The NSE is the link between MAGTF equipment and supplies aboard the MPS?ships and the MAGTF?personnel flown into the area by the Air Mobility Command (AMC).

Since MPS ships have no defenses against enemy attack they rely on combat ships for protection in contingency operations. As a result, combat vessels conducted training exercises Oct. 11 to 15 on protecting SS?Kocak from attack.

The equipment was back-loaded aboard the ships beginning with a partial lift Oct. 11 and ending Oct. 15. The squadron redeployed to the Mediterranean Oct. 25.

Gen. Edip Baser, Commander Allied Land Forces Southeastern Europe (CLSE), Maj. Gen. Reginal Clemmons, Dep. Cdr, LSE?and Brig. Gen. Robert Blackman, Dep. Cdr., II?MEF, depart MV?Bobo after touring the ship.
Gen. Edip Baser, CLSE, receives a briefing on MV?Bobo.
MV?Bobo starts off-load for the static display.
Naval Support Element SeaBees work quickly to build tables for use at the port dining facility.
A marine sniper from 2/1 Scout Sniper Platoon readies himself while taking part in the Dynamic Mix 98 Distinguished Visitors Day equipment and capabilities display.
Distinguished Visitors receive a briefing from from ACOS?Operations of Headquarters LANDSOUTHEAST during their tour of the LANDSOUTHEAST?Forward headquarters in Iskenderun.
The II?MEF?band gives a concert in downtown Iskenderun Oct. 3.
MPS ships anchor in the port of Iskenderun.
A Highly Mobile Multi-Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) is loaded on to the deck of a lighterage barge in preparation for movement to the beach landing site.
Lighterage barges are staged along side the SS?Obregon as they wait to be loaded with vehicles destined for the beach-head.
Vehicles are offloaded from the lighterage barge to the beach landing site, only moments after it arrives at the beach-head.
II?MEF?marines prepare to conduct crew drills on a M198 155mm Medium Towed Howitzer.
II?MEF?M1A1 main battle tanks staged as part of the static display during the Distinguished Visitors Program.
Gen. Edip Baser, Commander, Allied Land Forces Southeastern Europe aims carefully with a sniper rifle at the MEF live firing exercise in Kayseri, Oct. 14.
A Turkish mortar station fires an 81 mm mortar at the live firing.
II MEF LAV and LAV-ADs arrive at the Kayseri range.
Gen. Edip Baser gets a ride in the LAV-AD at the Kayseri Range, Oct. 14.
Turkish soldiers man a machine gun position during the Kayseri live firing exercise.